ME297 Mechanical Engineering Special Topics


Subject: Optomechanical Systems Engineering


KLA-Tencor MSE Optoelectronic Systems Cohort


Useful links and reference


My Schedule

My Website

Graduate and Extended Studies MSE Programs at SJSU

For information on downloading Code V educational,  contact program coordinator at KLA-Tencor (internal)

Synopsis / ORA

Sign up for customer support portal

Download the introduction to Code V training PDFs Chapters1-14 these will be assigned as reading


Autodesk for downloading AutoCAD educational and help (coming soon)

Online Course Videos (Available only for KLA-Tencor employees

Martin Luther King Library SJSU

OSA (Optical Society of America)

SPIE (International Society of Optical Engineers)


Course Syllabus:  ME297-1

Class: Tuesday 4:00-5:00 PM at KLA-Tencor Building 1 Room 2301-Confosious Room.

Office hour: Tuesday 3:00-3:50 PM at KLA-Tencor Building 1 Room 2301

My coordinates and office hours plus all the necessary information about the course, testing, grading etc. can be found on the course syllabus. Please read it carefully at the beginning and follow the announcements on this page for changes.


Check your email and the website at least twice a week for important announcements. 


Lecture Notes: I will post the lecture notes as a guide and will frequently update/correct them as we advance during the semester. Please watch for typos and mistakes. I will really appreciate your help on correcting the notes and suggestions for new material, topics and in general improving the course. Please send your comments and suggestions via email to:

Lectures are recorded for internal use of KLA-Tencor employees so if you miss a class follow the link to the course videos and submit the assignments on time for getting full credit.  

Link to the homework assignments can be found on the course timetable.


Special thanks to Prof. Jim Burge of the College of Optical Sciences Center of the University of Arizona for allowing the use of his lecture notes and his students’ reports and tutorials on various subjects throughout the course. 


ME297-1 Fall 2011 offered by SJSU at KLA-Tencor, Instructor: Nayer Eradat

Tentative Course Topics and Schedule:

Week: wk; Number of hours: h; Workshop: ws; Lecture: lec

Yoder: Y; Online lecture notes: LN; CodeV introductory user guide: CV; Vukobratovich: V






Class / content / knowledge

Reading &


Objectives /Skills




1h lec






Course overview and structure

Teaching method

Student learning objective

Expectations for technical reports.  Intro to Optomechanical Engineering (OME)

Y1 (means Yoder chapter 1)

LN1 (Lecture notes 1)

Understand role of the optomechanical engineer (OME) in general


Write quality, concise technical reports

Understand key issues to be addressed in a technical report


2h lec



Optical system terminology refresher

Nature of light and basic laws

First order optics of lenses & mirrors, ray tracing





Selected solutions by the students

Martin Aalund exta

Chunlin Chen

Patrick Parker


Dual nature of light, harmonic wave properties, index of refraction, dispersion, Abbe number, Snell’s laws, definition and purpose of optical systems, OPL, wavefront, phase, ray tracing, diffraction, matrix methods, cardinal points and planes, object, image, cardinal point relationships, system LOS, magnification, image orientation,  thin prisms



1h ws


Ordering and installation of the software

Overview of the CODE V


CV1 & CV2

Creating a simple optical design using a ray trace program

Software intro and how to purchase









0.5h lec


20 min


Basic optics terminology (continued)

Clear aperture, vignetting,


Optomechanical System requirements and design guidelines at KLA-Tencor by Guest Speaker



Midterm project specs proposal guideline:


field of view, apertures & stops,

Understand role of the optomechanical engineer (OME) and how is it done at your company



2h ws


Analyzing performance of a simple optical design,




Optical analysis of simple optical system using ray trace program


Understand Aberrations

Reporting the performance





1h lec


Optical design flow,  generation and interpretation of the specs.


LN4 Optical design flow and aberrations


Analysis of aberrations and alignments in a ray tracing program,


3rd order aberrations, recognition of each, parallel plates and their aberrations.










2h lec/ discussion

Beam walk, Image motion, optical invariant, introducing misalignment & error


LN4-2 Optical design flow (continued)



Calculate image shift for 6 degrees of freedom motion of lens, mirror, window

Decompose rotation about one point to rotation about another point plus translation

Calculate image shift for rotation of optical system about an arbitrary point for object at infinity.

Calculate image shift for a general case of any element motion



1h ws

System line of sight (LOS) and

Root Sum Square (RSS)

Error budgets and tolerances in optomechanical systems


CV3 & CV4

HW3 (Due on 10/11)

Understand issues for RSS combination

Estimate RSS combination for large number of parameters

Error analysis and error budgeting for coupled and independent sources of error.




No class make up date: Nov 10










1h lec




1h Lec





1h lec

Prisms: names, properties, and applications of common prisms, definitions for technical reports


Mirror Matrices: definition of mirror matrices





Machining and measurements

Common machining methods – limitations

Common measuring methods – limitations












Videos of mechanical processing techniques



Determine elliptical beam footprint onto a tilted plane (like a mirror);

Tunnel diagrams


Calculate mirror matrix for set of reflections

Determine mirror matrix from inspection

Apply mirror matrices to determine effects of prism rotations



Calculate effects of Abbe offset



1h lec

Tolerancing Optical Systems

Systems engineering approach to tolerancing

Tolerancing and ray tracing


CV4 & 5

Tolerance analysis of simple optical system using ray trace program

HW4 Due on 11/18

Build tolerance table, adjust for performance

Define compensator for tolerancing

Use rules of thumb for initial mechanical tolerancing



Preparation of the report for the midterm on design & tolerancing

Will be posted on Friday 11/14










Tolerancing of Optical components

Relationship between optical element specifications and system performance

Lens centration, wedge what it means and how it relates to manufacturing



CV6 & 8

Tolerance analysis of a optical component in relation to system performance using ray trace program

Specify lens wedge

Specify optical surfaces

Specify optical glass

Specify scratch/dig for surfaces

Apply rules of thumb for setting requirements 


2h ws


Midterm report /discussion

Discussion and review of the tolerancing

Report on tolerancing a simple optical design project

Presenting a quality professional report on tolerancing.








2h lec

Technical drawings

Understand the use of datum surfaces, used for reference



Midterm report due

Create three-view orthographic projections

Use center lines, leaders, callouts,

Correctly specify dimensions and tolerances on drawings

sketch isometric layout for simple solids








Optomechanical drawing standards

ANSI Y14.5 convention

GD&T conventions

ISO 10110





ISO 10110


Use ANSI Y14.5 convention to specify tolerances for straightness, flatness, roundness, profile, perpendicularity, parallelism, concentricity, position, and runout.

Specify basic dimensions and tolerances using GD&T conventions

Know how optical components are specified with ISO10110



1h lec



Definition of force, moment, static equilibrium

Familiarity with methods of joints and sections for frames and machines





Create free body diagram

Apply static equilibrium to determine reaction forces

Determine constraint conditions for simple cases



1h ws

Mechanical design

Creating engineering drawings

Installation and getting started with AutoCAD










2h lec









Kinematic constraints

Understand principles of kinematic constraint

Understand usefulness and limitations of semi-kinematics


Stress and strain

Understand normal and shear stress and strain, Poisson effect

Definition of material properties E, G, EB , n, sy , sPEL  sULT











In order to stay on the schedule please start working on HW6 so it will be ready by Nov. 10.

Kinematic Constraints

S Define kinematic and semi-kinematic interfaces

S Calculate stiffness and stress for point contacts


Stress and Strain

Calculate elongation due to normal loads

Determine effective stiffness for combination of series – parallel load paths

Use bulk modulus to determine stiffness of constrained layer



1h ws

Intro to mechanical design software

Final project design meeting and planning:

Design of a simple mount for the lens/imager system designed in part 1 of the project based on the operation conditions stated in the project proposal.  




Student presentations


2 of the groups will present their midterm project design. Instructor will choose two of the best reports to be presented so other groups can take advantage of their experience.









1h lec




Deflections under loading

Understand solid mechanics of deformations for beams with simple loading – axial, shear, torsion, bending




Proposal review and discussion / approval




Calculate I, J for simple geometry, look it up for more general cases

Use tables to determine angular and lateral deflections of beams for simple loading

Use superposition to determine beam deflections for more general cases

Use superposition to solve problems that have overconstraint

Apply Maxwell’s reciprocity to simple cases

Calculate stiffness for simple geometry, determine resonant frequency

Assess stability for Euler buckling


1h lec

Thermal Distortions

Understand thermal expansion

Know about materials with very low CTE




V pp 81-95

Calculate thermal distortion for simple cases

Apply material conductivity to determine thermal gradient, heat flux

Apply thermal diffusivity to determine conductive time constant

Athermalize using different materials, geometry


0.5h lec




Optical materials and athermalization

Know approximate values of all common material constants for BK7

Familiarity with special issues for common classes of materials,







Calculate change in focus due to temperature for simple optical systems

Athermalize mechanical distances, optical systems




Mechanical Materials

Know approximate values of all common material constants for aluminum

Familiarity with special issues for common classes of materials

knowledge of important constants



V pp 6-48




0.5h lec


Definitions of metric and English fasteners

Familiarity with types and sources of specialty hardware

Will post later

Use tables to find dimensions and torque settings for common fasteners

Find and procure fasteners and specialty hardware



0.5h lec


Familiarity with classes of adhesives, issues, methods


V pp 6-48 &121-129


Calculate stiffness for elastomeric adhesives

Calculate thermally induced stress for simple bonded joints




1h lec

Shock and Vibration

Dynamic response for Mass-spring-damper system

Definition of PSD, acceleration spectrum



V pp 96-113

Y pp 45-54

Estimate performance of vibration isolation system

Estimate shock loading for simple case



1h lec

Flexures and adjustments

Understand 6 DoF constraints, adjustments

Understand use of flexures to constrain some and allow other degrees of freedoms

Use of flex pivots, blade flexures

Use of geometry, differential flexure for small motions.


Specify use of shims, preloaded screws push-pull screws for adjustments

Use liquid pinning for stable connection

Choose materials for flexures

Calculate stiffness for simple flexures



1h lec




Stages and motion control

Understand elements of any translation or rotation stage

Understand geometry of hexapod for motion control


V pp 117-161





Calculate effect of angle coupled through Abbe offset

Trade off different issues and be able to choose stages

-        linear stage

-        rotary stage

-        tilt stage



1h ws


Project progress check




1h lec


Concepts for mounting optical elements

Understand how to define 6 DoF constraints

Understand issues for choosing glass-metal interface

-        control of position and geometry, coupled with manufacturing tolerance

-        limit stress due to thermal and shock loading



V: PP166-311


Choose between mounting concepts: clamping and bonding

Estimate thermal survival for bonded joints



1h lec

1h ws

Mounting of lenses

Separate the functions of the mount: safe constraint and dimensional precision.

Understand the techniques used to achieve tolerances that are tighter than the machining precision

Mounting of windows

Mounting techniques for windows

Y4 & 5

Developing an alignment plan for an optomechanical system

Design simple lens barrel for multiple lenses

Understand difference between mechanical and optical surfaces of a lens and how to mount them with required accuracy


Calculate stresses for pressure windows




Mirror mounts

Understand basics for controlling mirror errors

  - fully constrain the rigid body degrees of freedom 

  - not over constrain and distort the mirror
  - allow thermal expansions
  - avoid applying moments

Sources of error for mirror mounts



V: pp 243-311

Defining simple bonded or clamped mount for small mirror

Estimating performance of simple bonded or clamped mirror mount




1h lec

Stray light analysis

Description of stray light and scattered light. 

Introduction to suppression techniques. Optical black finishes.

Reflectance and BRDF 


How to minimize the stray light,

Ability to interpret the effect of the stray light in system performance data.



1h lec


Optomechanical Systems

Familiarity with system-level design, tradeoffs

Familiarity with incorporation of assembly and alignment plan as part of system design



Final stages of the design, reviews, generating repots




Overview and wrap up. Concluding remarks.

Course evaluation


Final exam report / Final interview and presentations in design review format

Reporting and presentation, managing a design review.